PF_{5}

TeF_{4}

BrF_{3}

Orbitals used by pairs of electrons in VB theory need to be created from atomic orbitals: overlap between orbitals can give the required increase in electron density between nuclei. A problem arises, however, because atomic orbitals do not always give the right geometries.

Hybridization: overlap of two or more atomic orbitals on the same atomic center.

This requires orbitals to be about the same energy (or same size).

geometry

hybridlinear

sp, sd

trigonal

sp

^{2}, sd^{2}tetrahedral

sp

^{3}, sd^{3}square planar

dsp

^{2}trigonal bipyramid

dsp

^{3}octahedral

d

^{2}sp^{3}